1. How Students Learn

Ideas on How Learning Occurs
The Role of Motivation and Classroom Environment
Reasons for Being in College and in Class / Vying for Student Time and Attention
Theories of Learning Motivation
Self-Efficacy Theory / Attribution Theory / Self-Worth Theory
Implications of Learning Motivation for Instruction
Student Preparedness
Different Learning Styles and Their Implications
Cognitive Development
Dualistic Stages / Relativistic Stages / Implications for Teaching / Students in the Dualistic Stages / Students in the Relativistic Stages / Women's Development
Cognitive Styles
Field Independence and Field Dependence / Kolb's Learning Styles / Learning Modalities / Implications for Teaching
Cognitive Styles and Culture
Cognitive Styles and Teaching Strategies
Differences Based on Age, Disability, Gender, and Cultural Backgrounds
Nontraditional Age Students / Students with Disabilities / Women Students / Students of Different Cultural Backgrounds
How Should Instructors Respond to Student Differences?
Determining Which Approach Is Appropriate
Recommended Readings on Students and Learning

2. Teachers and Teaching

Traits of Effective Teachers
Teaching Styles
Starting Well and Developing Teaching Skills
The Role and Types of Feedback
Written Evaluations from Students: The Student Evaluation of Instruction (SEI), Feedback on Your Instruction (FYI), Other Instruments / Class Committees / Discussion Mapping / In-Class Observation / Videotaping / Class Interviews / Syllabus and Materials Review / Students' Exams, Written Work, and Other Products
Classroom Research
Balancing It All
Recommended Readings on Effective Teaching

3. Course Preparation

Universal Design for Course Construction
Course Content
The Importance of Course Goals
Instructional Objectives
Structuring an Effective Course
Selecting Learning Activities / Culturally Inclusive Content
Team Teaching and Interdisciplinary Course Planning
The Syllabus
The Importance of the Syllabus / Preparing an Effective Course Syllabus / The Disability Statement / The Syllabus Has a Personality / Using the Syllabus in Class
Introducing the Course: The First Day of Class
First Impressions / Establishing Rapport / Clarifying Expectations / Gathering Information / Creating Excitement / Creating the Desired Atmosphere
Recommended Readings on Preparing a Course

4. Modes of Teaching

The Notion of Active Learning Lecture
Preparing a Lecture / Starting a Lecture / Organizing the Lecture / Presenting the Lecture / Soliciting and Responding to Student Feedback during Lecture / Ending the Lecture / A Few Words about Preparing Lecture Notes
Leading Effective Discussions
Setting Discussion Objectives and Formats / Setting the Expectations and Establishing Ground Rules / Getting Discussions Started / Managing Discussions / Building Rapport / Verbal and Nonverbal Instructor Cues / Creating Closure
Incorporating Writing in Instruction
Writing Assignments
Reading Journals / The Precis / Brainstorming and Freewriting / Papers
Cooperative Learning
Peer Learning / Problem Solving / Case Studies / Learning Cells / Discovery Format / Role Playing / Debate / Simulations / Problem-Based Learning
Service Learning
What is Service Learning? / Developing and Planning the Service Learning Curriculum / Working with the Local Community / Preparing Students: Developing Reflective Learning Experiences / Assessing Student Learning and Evaluating Service Learning / Campus Resources Supporting Service Learning
Teaching Large Classes
Opening a Lecture / Capturing Students' Interest / Active Learning in Large Classes
Teaching in Special Settings
Teaching in the Lab / Teaching in the Studio / Working with Students in the Field
Teaching One-on-One
Recommended Readings on Modes of Teaching

5. Incorporating Instructional Technology

Benefits and Applications
Modes of Technology
Chalkboards and Dry Erase Boards / Using Overhead Projectors / Films and Videotapes in the Classroom / Slides / PowerPoint and Other Presentation Software / Computers to Enhance Learning Outside the Classroom / Computers for Course Communication / The World Wide Web in Teaching and Learning
Preparing to Teach Web-Enhanced Courses
Technology Training and Support
Office of Technology Enhanced Learning and Research (TELR): About WebCT
Frequently Asked Questions about Technology Support
Recommended Readings on Instructional Technology

6. Testing and Grading: Assessing Student Performance

General Tips about Written Tests
Planning the Test
Test Item Design
Limited-Choice vs. Open-Ended Items: Exam Construction and Grading Time, Level of Learning Objectives, Content Coverage, Practice and Reward of Writing and Reading Skills, Practice and Reward of Creativity and Divergent Thinking, Feedback to Teacher and Student, Length of Exam, Size of Class, Reliability in Grading, Reusability of Exam, Prevention of Cheating
Writing Test Items
Multiple-Choice Items / True-False Items / Matching Items / Completion Items / Essay and Short Answer Items
Using Item Analysis to Test the Test
Procedures for Computing Difficulty and Discrimination Indexes
Performance Assessment
Assessing Writing
Analytic Scoring / Primary Trait Analysis: An Example of Traditional Holistic Grading, An Example of Primary Trait Analysis, General Notes about Primary Trait Analysis / Holistic Scoring / Other Suggestions for Grading Writing
Feedback and Grading
Formative Feedback / Providing Feedback to Students in Performance Settings / Summative Feedback (Grading) / Validity / Reliability / Clear Communication of Evaluation Plan Prior to Performance / Realistic Expectations
Methods of Grading and Relative Advantages
Calculating Grades / Norm-Referenced Systems: The Simple Curve, The Normalized Curve / Criterion-Referenced Systems: Percentage of Total Points Possible, Mastery or Satisfactory-Unsatisfactory / Contract System / Hybrid (Combination of Criterion- and Norm-Referenced Systems): Percent of Maximum Obtained, Gap System, Self-Evaluation
Frequently Asked Questions about Grading
Concluding Thoughts on Assessment
Recommended Readings on Testing and Grading

7. Problem Situations

Managing Conflict between Teachers and Students
Helping Students in Distress
General Guidelines for Assisting Students in Distress / Scheduling an Appointment / Confidentiality / Emergency Situations
Sexual Harassment
Interstudent Conflict in Diverse Environments
Academic Misconduct

8. Growth as a Teacher

The Role of Feedback in Growth as a Teacher
Development of Teaching Skills
Seminars and Workshops / Courses for TAs / Consultation Services at FTAD / Mentoring: Mentoring for TAs: Preparing Future Faculty (PFF), Graduate TA Fellows Program; Mentoring for Faculty: Ohio State Teaching Enhancement Program for Early-Career Faculty, Academy of Teaching Directory / Academic Literature / Networking: Networks at Ohio State: New Faculty Network (NFN), Teachers' Round Table (TRT), Faculty and TAs of Color Teaching Network, Commitment to Success Program (CSP) Diversity Network; Networks at the National and International Level: American Educational Research Association (AERA), International Alliance of Teacher Scholars (IATS), Discipline-Specific Organizations
Documenting Teaching Performance: Teaching Portfolios
Recommended Readings on Growth as a Teacher

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